The following document provides a crosswalk between the sixth and seventh editions.
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was created to set standards and rules for scholarly writing. Though those rules evolve, the aim of the Manual remains the same. Now in its seventh edition, the Manual guides readers on stylistic choices as well as citation. The rules set forth in the Manual are commonly referred to as APA Style. Many social and behavioral sciences use this style for their writing and publication, and it is used exclusively in Nursing. Papers at FNU must be written in APA Style and the Publication Manual is a required textbook for FNU students.
When purchasing a Manual, please be aware that counterfeit copies are being sold. It is best to buy it from the FNU online bookstore, the APA Style website, or other established retailers. Avoid buying from third-party sellers.
Citation allows the writer to acknowledge other contributions to their work, and how the existing literature relates to that work. In APA Style, citations are provided within the text.
References provide the reader with the information necessary to find and retrieve each work that is cited in the text. References consist of four main elements, in this order:
Follow this general format when creating references, even if you cannot find a specific example.
Here is a citation for a journal article showing these elements:
1Trakhtenberg, E.C. 2(2008).3 The effects of guided imagery on the immune system: A critical review. 4International Journal of Neuroscience, 118(6), 839-855. http://doi.org/fxfsbq
Examples for most types of references are in Chapter 10, pages 313-352 of the Publication Manual, and many are available on the site below:
Common References Examples
Examples for Images
Citing images is a bit different and requires a few more considerations than other works. The page linked below goes into more detail about citation and references for images.
Using APA Style in a presentation (e.g. PowerPoint)
InfoGuides on transitioning to the 7th edition (these include links to training sessions):
The following InfoGuide has detailed information on the writing process, and includes a page on APA and citation:
To help manage citations and quickly format reference lists, you may want to use citation management software. FNU provides access to RefWorks, and free programs are available as well.