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Simulation & Innovation: Foundational Content

Foundational Writings

Aliner, G. (2011). Developing High Fidelity Health Care Simulation Scenarios: A Guide for Educators and Professionals. Simulation and Gaming, 42 (1). 9-26.

Boardman, R. (1969) THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF EDUCATIONAL SIMULATION Educational Research 11(3). p.179-184.

Walton, J., Chute, E., Ball, L. (2011). Negotiating the Role of the Professional Nurse: The Pedagogy of Simulation; A Grounded Theory. Journal of Professional Nursing, 27(5), 299-310.

Wang, E. (2011). Simulation and Adult Learning. Dis Mon, 57, 664-678

Rodgers, D. L., Securro, S., & Pauley, R. D. (2009). The Effect of High-Fidelity Simulation on Educational Outcomes in an Advanced Life Support Course. Simulation in Healthcare, 4(4), 200-206.

Schaefer, J., Vanderbilt, A., Cason, C., Bauman, E., Glavin, R., Lee, F., & Navedo, D. (2011). Literature Review: Instructional Design and Pedagogy Science in Healthcare Simulation. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(7), S30-S41.

Principles of Modeling and Simulation: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Sokolowski, J. A. & Banks, Catherine M., Eds. John Wiley and Sons, 2009

McGaghie, W.C., Issenberg, S. B., Petrusa, E.R., & Scalese, R.J. (2010). A Critical Review of Simulation Based Medical Education Research: 2003-2009. Medical Education, 44, 50-63. doi:10.111/j.1365-2923.2009.03547.x

Issenberg, S. B., McGaghie, W. C., Petrusa, E. R., Gordon, D. L., & Scalese, R. J. (2005). Features and Uses of High-Fidelity Medical Simulations That Lead to Effective Learning: a BEME Systematic Review. Medical Teacher, 27(1), 10-28.

Elfrink, V. L., Nininger, J., Rohig, L., & Lee, J. (2009). Case for Group Planning in Human Patient Simulation. Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(2), 83-86.

Dieckmann, P., Gaba, D., & Rall, M. (2007). Deepening the Theoretical Foundations of Patient Simulation as Social Practice. Simulation in Health Care, 2(3). 183-193.

Cant, R. & Cooper, S. (2009). Simulation-Based Learning in Nurse Education: Systematic Review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(1), 3-15 doi:10.1111/j1365-2648.2009.05240.x



Barrows, H.S. (1993) An Overview of the Uses of Standardized Patients for Teaching and Evaluating Clinical Skills. Academic Medicine 68. p.443-451.

Cleland, J. A., Abe, K., Rethans, J. (2009). The Use of Simulated Patients in Medical Education. Medical Teacher, 31(6), 477-486.

May, W., Park, J. H., Justin, P. L. (2009). A Ten-Year Review of the Literature and the Use of Standardized Patients in Teaching and Learning: 1996-2005. Medical Teacher, 31(6), 487-492

Stillman P., Ruggill, J., & Sabers, D. (1980). Patient Instructors as Teachers and Evaluators. Journal of Medical Education, 55, 186-193.

Swanson, D., & Stillman, PL. (1990). Use of Standardized Patients for Teaching and Assessing Clinical Skills. Evaluation & The Health Professionals, 13 (1) ,79-103.


Archer, J. C. (2010) State of the Science in Health Professional Education: Effective Feedback. Medical Education, 44(1), 101-108.

van de Ridder, M., Stokking, K. M., McGaghie, W. C., ten Cate, O.(2008). What is Feedback in Clinical Education? Medical Education, 42, 189-197.


Cantrell, M. A. (2008). The Importance of Debriefing in Clinical Simulations. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 4(2), e19-e23. doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.ecns.2008.06.006.

Dreifuerst, K.T. (2009). The Essentials of Debriefing in Simulation Learning: A Concept Analysis. Nursing Education Perspectives, 10(2), 109-114.

Fanning, R. M. & Gaba, D. M. . The Role of Debriefing in Simulation-Based Learning. Simulation in Healthcare, 2(2), 115-125.

Wang, E. E., Kharasch, M., & Kuruna, D. (2011). Facilitative Debriefing Techniques for Simulation-based Learning. Academic Emergency Medicine, 18(2), e5-e5. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.01001.x.


Boulet, J. R., Jeffries, P. R., Hatala, R. A., Korndorffer, J. R., Feinstein, D. M., & Roche, J. P. (2011). Research Regarding Methods of Assessing Learning Outcomes. Simulation in Healthcare, 6(7), 48-51.

Downing, S. M., & Yudkowsky, R. (2009). Assessment in Health Professions Education. New York, NY: Routledge

Kardong-Edgren, S., Adamson, K. A., & Fitzgerald, C., (2010). A Review of Currently Published Evaluation Instruments for Human Patient Simulation. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 6, e25-e35.

Williams, R., Barrows, H., Vu, N., Verhulst, S., Colliver, J., Marcy, M., & Steward, D. (1987). Direct, Standardized Assessment of Clinical Competence, Medical Education 21, 482-89.

Dieckmann, P., Lippert, A., Rall, M., & Glavin, R. (2010). When Things Do Not Go As Expected: Scenario Life Savers. Simulation in Health Care, 5(4), 219-225.

Influential Figures

Dr. Pamela R. Jeffries, Dean of Nursing at George Washington University and former Vice Provost for Digital Initiatives at Johns Hopkins University and professor at the School of Nursing, is nationally known for her research and work in developing simulations and online teaching and learning. 

Google Scholar Search

Harold S. Barrows, MD was a pioneer in medical education innovation. He is well known for his work in teaching medical education using Problem Based Learning (PBL) and in development of simulated patient methodologies. 

David M. Gaba, MD is Associate Dean for Immersive and Simulation-based Learning and Director of the Center for Immersive and Simulation based Learning (CISL) at Stanford University School of Medicine and Co-Director of the Simulation Center at Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System. Dr. Gaba is the founding and current Editor-in-Chief of the indexed peer-reviewed journal Simulation in Healthcare, the only indexed peer-reviewed journal on simulation, published by the Society for Simulation in Healthcare (SSH).

Google Scholar Search

Video Playlist

The playlist below covers some general, foundational information related to simulation and innovation within healthcare professions. The runtime varies, as does the topics covered. I hope you find these helpful, and I will continue to add to and refine the playlist over time.